Coordinator, Ancient Near Eastern Studies
Professor of Ancient Scripture
Offices: 2015 HRCB (Kennedy Center); 365-F JSB
Phone: 801-422-3359
Twitter: @EricDHuntsman

Classical Civilization 246
The Golden Age of Rome

Fall 2002 Syllabus


  • Roman Politics and Statecraft
    • Origins of the Roman state
    • Roman monarchy
    • the Res Republica
      • assemblies, magistrates, senate
      • nature of the Roman oligarchy
    • Struggle of the Orders
    • The Final Roman Constitution
  • Early Culture and Literature
    • Italy and its peoples
    • Etruscan culture
    • Greek colonies
    • Early Roman art
    • Early Roman Writers
    • Roman comedy
      • Comic antecedents
      • Plautus and Terence
  • Acquisition and Effects of Empire
    • Roman Expansion
      • Roman Italy
      • Punic Wars Against Carthage
      • The Roman West
      • The Balance of Power in the East
    • Roman Administration
    • Results of Imperialism
      • The Roman Revolution
      • The Gracchi: the first Roman demagogues\

Unit 1: Great Men of the Late Republic

  • The Historical Writings of Sallust  
    • C. Sallustius Crispus, his life and background
    • Historiography: Sallust's antecedents
      • Greek historical writing
      • Roman historiography
    • Sallust and History
    • The Jugurthine War
      • Preface: moralizing and programmatic sections
      • Historical context
      • The Roman picture
      • The war commences
      • Tribunician politics at Rome
      • Metellus and Marius
      • The end of Jugurtha
  • Marius  
    • Sources for Marius' career
    • Plutarch's Life of Marius
    • Marius' career
      • background
      • early politics
      • first consulship and the Numidian victory
        • the dilectus (levy) of the capite censi
      • command against the Cimbri and Teutones
        • repeated consulships
      • political blunders
        • Marius and the populares
        • Saturninus
    • The Social War (91-88 B.C.)
      • M. Livius Drusus, tr. pl. 91 B.C.
      • Three men, three paths: Pompey, Cicero, Catiline
    • Sulpicius Rufus
      • Marius and the Mithridatic command
      • Sulla's march on Rome
  • Sulla
    • Plutarch'sLife of Sulla
      • Sulla's background and character
    • Sulla and the Mithridatic War
    • Marius and Cinna at Rome
      • Marius' seventh consulship; his death
    • The return of Sulla
      • dictator rei publicae constitutendae
      • the "restorationist" government
    • Sulla and the arts

  • Crassus and Pompey (and the entry of Cicero)
    • Crassus, exploiter of opportunities
    • Pompey's unusual rise
    • Cicero's different path
    • Converging careers
      • Spartacus' revolt, 73-71 B.C.
      • Consulship of Pompey and Crassus, 70 B.C.
      • Cicero's trial of Verres
  • Pompey Ascendant (and Cicero's oratory)
    • Tribunician legislation and Pompey's commands
      • lex Gabinia, 67 B.C. against the pirates
      • lex Manilia, 66 B.C. against Mithridates
    • Cicero, a Pompeian booster . . .
      • dilemma of navigating between Pompey and the boni
    • Cicero and Classical rhetoric
      • Greek background
      • Latin oratory
      • Three branches of oratory 
        • deliberative, forensic, epideictic
      • Three styles of rhetoric
        • plain, middle, grand
      • Schools of oratory
        • Attic, Asianic, Rhodian
    • The Roman Speech
      • Arrangement
      • Invention (types of proof)
      • Figures
      • Delivery
    • Cicero's de Imperio Cn. Pompeii


  • Lucretius and Catullus
    • Hellenistic schools of philosophy
      • Academy
      • Peripatetic
      • Cyncicism
      • Stoicism
      • Epicureanism
    • T. Lucretius Carus
      • background
      • De rerum naturam
    • Hellenisitic Poetry at Rome
      • Alexandrian figures and genres
      • the "Neoteric" poets
    • C. Valerius Catulus
      • life and background
      • Catullus and Roman society
      • the provincial tour
      • final years
      • the poetry of Catullus
  • Late Republican Art and Architecture
    • Changing tastes in sculpture
      • verism: almost brutal realism
      • Eastern glorification of the individual
      • grand pretensions: Pompey's imitation of Alexander the Great
    • Tombs and funerary sculpture
      • Tomb of Caecilia Metella: money and status, but lessening power
      • imitations of the newly rich: funeral portraiture of the liberti
    • Roman building
      • characteristics and technical advancements
      • the role of Senate and government, or lack therof
      • Sulla's example: Fortuna Primagenia, Jupiter Optimus Maximus, the Tabularium
      • Pompey's building program: theater, porticus, curia, house
      • Domestic architecture
        • literary evidence for the houses and villas of Lucullus
        • republican extravagance (Zanker quote)
    • Roman painting
      • review of Italian or "plebeian" style; First Pompeian style
      • Second Pompeian style
    • Roman mosaics
Unit 1 Review

Unit 2: Cicero and Caesar

  • Caesar  
    • Suggested titles for further reading
    • Caesar's background
    • Early career
    • Rising prominence
    • Caesar's consulship
    • Caesar's provincial command
      • the conquest of Gaul
      • events at Rome
    • The descent to civil war
    • Caesar's Bellum Civile
      • the commentarii
      • Caesar as author and orator
      • the decisive moment: three views
      • civil war in Italy, 49 B.C.
  • Cicero the Humanist 
    • Cicero's retirement during the Caesarian Regime
      • Personal and Political Disappointments
    • Cicero's view of humanism
    • Cicero and Roman education
      • Pro Archia the benefits of a liberal education
    • Cicero and Philosophy
      • Roman views of Greek philosophy
      • On the Orator: qualities and training of the statesman
      • "Deam of Scipio" from On the Republic: a classical cosmology
      • Discussions at Tusculum 5: philosophy on ethics, emotions, and immortality
  • The Fall of Caesar and Its Aftermath 
    • The End
      • The Assasination of Julius Caesar (Suetonius and Plutarch versus Shakespeare!)
      • Caesar revaluated: his plans, the dilemma of the late Roman Republic, and his contradictions
    • The Aftermath
      • Parties after the assassination
      • Antony's compromise
    • Sir Ronald Syme's Roman Revolution and modern historiography
    • The rise of Octavian
      • Posthumous adoption: C. Octavius becomes C. Iulius Caesar Octavianus
    • Cicero's Philippics
      • Cicero's break with Antony
      • First Philippic, an actual speech
      • Second Philippic, an invective pamphlet
    • Confusion at Mutina
    • The Triumvirate
      • the death of Cicero
    • Battle of Philippi, 42 B.C.
    • Octavian's difficulties
      • Perusine War, 41-40 B.C.
      • Pact of Brundisium
        • Antony' marriage to Octavia
      • Problem of Sex. Pompey
        • Pact of Misenum, 39 B.C.
        • Octavian's "tilt" towards the aristocracts
        • Marriage to Livia Drusilla
      • Pact of Tarentum with Antony, 37 B.C.
      • Battle of Naulochus, 36 B.C.
    • Antony and the East
      • Growing influence of Cleopatra
    • Octavian's improving position
      • Illyrian campaigns, 35-34 B.C.
      • Octavian and Agrippa's building program
      • Octavian consul II, 33 B.C.
    • The Pivotal Year 32 B.C.
      • Driving out of the Antonian consuls
      • Declaring war on Cleopatra
    • Cassius Dio's History
      • Background
      • Nature of his history
    • Battle of Actium, 31 B.C.: Octavian supreme

Unit  2 Review

Unit 3: Augustus and His Imitators

  • The Augustan Regime
    • Augustus' positions and honors
      • The Principate in 27 B.C.
      • Growing tensions
      • Constitutional settlement of 23 B.C.
      • Constitutional adjustment of 19 B.C.
      • Final honors
      • Consititutional position summarized
    • Augustus and the upper classes
    • Augustus and the provinces
    • Augustan Ideology
      • Traditional values
      • Religion in the Age of Augustus
  • Augustan Program and Image
    • Augustan Sculpture
      • Imperial portraiture
        • Augustus as priest
        • Augustus from Prima Porta
      • The sculptural program of the Ara Pacis
      • Livia's portraiture
    • Augustus' building program
      • Agrippa and the Campus Martius
      • Forum of Augustus and Temple of Mars Ultor
    • Augustan Painting
      • Development of the Second Pompeian Style
        • Livia's Garden Room at Prima Porta
        • Livia's House on the Palatine
      • Third Pompeian Style

Announcements and Upcoming Events

Recent Lectures

September 12: “Sitting at the Feet of Jesus,” Time Out for Women, Denver

August 18-21 “Worship: Encountering and Being Transformed by God,” BYU Education Week

August 17 “LDS Christology and the Gospel of John,” BYU Education Week

August 5-11 Aspen Grove Family Camp

April 22: “Grateful for Grace: Appreciating the Saving and Transforming Power of Jesus Christ,” YSA 18th Stake Fireside

April 30: Womens Conference 2015 "Wells of Trust Fanning Flames of Faith"

May 8–9:   “The Search for the ‘Real’ Jesus of Nazareth: The Jesus of Faith, History, and Revelation,” Miller-Eccles Study Group, Fullerton and La Cañada, California

Upcoming Lectures

September 24 Second John A. Widtsoe Symposium, “Religion in the Public Square,” 7:00-9:00, tutor Center Ballroom, USC, Los Angeles (with the following link:

October 9 “The Footsteps of Jesus: Remembering His Miracles,” Cruise Lady Learn Our Religion Series, 7:00, 9118 S Redwood, West Jordan

November 8: “Sitting at the Feet of Jesus,” Time Out for Women, St. George

November 14: “Sitting at the Feet of Jesus,” Time Out for Women, Portland