Coordinator, Ancient Near Eastern Studies
Professor of Ancient Scripture
Offices: 2015 HRCB (Kennedy Center); 365-F JSB
Phone: 801-422-3359
Email: eric_huntsman@byu.edu
Twitter: @EricDHuntsman

Classical Civilization 307
Roman History Survey

Fall 2007 Syllabus

Unit 1: Rise of Rome


PREHISTORIC ROME

  • 1b. Italy Before Rome
    • Topics: preview of Italic peoples, the Etruscans, Greek colonies, and Latins.
    • Readings: Mellor2, 1–14; "Source Summaries" and "A Short Guide to the Sources for Roman History" (packet, v–x); W-H-Y, 1–11.


753 - 509 B.C.  THE MONARCHY OF ROME.

  • 2. Legendary Rome.
  • Topics: Etruscans, Greek colonies, and "Prehistoric" Rome (cont.). Foundation myths—Aeneas, Romulus and Remus; Romulus and Roman kingship; Numa and Roman religion; Tullus and Ancus.
  • Readings: Eutr. 1.1–8 (LR I no. 5); Liv. 1.1–3, 15–17, 34 (Mellor2, 169–174, 183–188). 
    • Scarre, 12–13; W-H-Y, 12–47, 51–58; Table 1: Legendary Roman Genealogies (packet, 38).
  • 3. Etruscan Rome.
  • Topics: Tarquin Priscus, Servius Tullius, Tarquinius Superbus; The Etruscans and Roman urbanization; Etruscan kingship and governance; Servian Reforms.
  • Readings: Liv. 1.35–49 (Mellor2, 187–199).
    • Scarre, "From Village to City," 13, 20–21; W-H-Y, 47–51; "Early Roman Political Structures" (packet, 23–24).

 

509 - 264 B.C.    THE EARLY REPUBLIC
Rome an Italian Power

  • 4. The Foundation of the Republic.
    • Topics: The Rape of Lucretia; Brutus and the overthrow of the Tarquinus; Porsenna and the role of the Etruscans; Founding Fathers and Patriotic Saga; What was the Roman Republic?
    • Readings: Liv. 1.55–60,(Mellor2, 200–205), 2.1–14 (online or Mellor1, 198–210); Pomp. in Dig. 1.2.2 (LR I no. 25); Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 7.59.2–8, 4.21 ( LR I no. 27).
    • Scarre, 13–14; W-H-Y, 59–66; packet, 23–24, 28.
  • 5. Struggle of the Orders I.   

    • Topics: Rome and the Latin League: the Battle of Lake Regillus; Patricians and plebeians—who were they really? the secession of the plebs; Foedus Cassianum; the plebeian tribunate; the Decemvirate and the Twelve Tables; lex Valeria Horatia; lex Canuleia; the disaster at Allia and the Gallic Sack

    • Readings: Liv. 2.31–40; 3.33–37, 44–49, 56–58; 5.34–49 (Mellor2, 205–241); Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 6.89, Liv. 3.4.1–7 and 13–15, 4.1, 6.3–12 ( LR I nos. 28, 33, and 35). W-H-Y, 67–71, 78–81; "Struggle of the Orders" (packet 25–26 only).

     

  • 6. Struggle of the Orders II.   

    • Topics: Lex Licinia Sextia; the final definition of a patrician; Lex Genucia; the context of the First Samnite War and the Latin Revolt (more to come); lex Publilia; the incidental issue of nexum; lex Ogulnia; the lex Hortensia—the patricio-plebeian senatorial aristocracy and the rise of the nobiles; republic or oligarchy?

    • Readings: Liv. 6.35, 10.6.3–11, 9.1–2; Gai. Inst. 1.3; Aul. Gell. NA 15.27.4 (LR I nos. 38, 41, and 42). W-H-Y, 71–77; "Struggle of the Orders" (packet, 27)

  • 7. Forging a Roman Italy.   

    • Topics: Latin, Samnite, and Pyrrhic Wars; Italian unification and types of Roman citizenship—the cives optimo iure and cives sine suffragio; Roman colonies and military development; an Italian commonwealth.

    • Readings: Scarre, 14–15, 22–23; W-H-Y, 82–90

  • 8. The Roman Republican Constitution.

    Quiz #1

    • Topics: Roman magistracies and assemblies; Greek political theory—Polybius and his mistakes; the Roman state and the American Founding Fathers; great Roman oligarchic families.

    • Readings: Polyb. 1.1–4; 6.1–9, 11–18, 56–57 (Mellor2, 17–20, 50–63); Pomp. in Dig. 1.2.2, 16–28 and Varro, Ling. 5.80–82 (LR I nos. 25–26)."The Developed Roman Constitution" (packet, 28–29).



  • 264 - 133 B.C.   THE MIDDLE REPUBLIC
    Rome a Mediterranean Power

     

  • 9. The First Punic War.

    • Topics: The Carthaginians and the Western Mediterranean; Rome and Sicily—the Campanian connection; rise of Roman naval power; the war reviewed—causes, strategies, and effects.

    • Readings:  Plyb. 1.5–14 (Mellor2, 21–27). Scarre, 15–16, 24; W-H-Y, 91–99.

     

  • 10. The Second Punic War I.

    • Topics: Roman expansion after the I Punic War—planned imperialism or entangling alliances? The cases of Sardinia and Corsica, Illyria; Punic Spain; the Barcine family—Hamilcar, Hasdrubal, and Hannibal; the siege of Saguntum; Hannibal’s invasion of Italy; Flaminius, Fabius, Paullus, and Varro; Trebia, Trasimene, and Cannae.

    • Readings:  Polyb. 2.1–2, 3, and 7–12, 3.1, 6–17, 20–23 (Mellor2, 27–42; also online handout or Mellor1, 32–47); Liv. 21.1–48, 62–63, 22.3–7 and 44–51 (Mellor2, 242–277; also online handout or Mellor1, 292–93). Scarre, 16, 24–25; W-H-Y, 107–111

  • 11. The Second Punic War II.
  • Source Analysis #1 due
  • Topics: The Revolt of Capua and Southern Italy; the war in Greece and Sicily; the Scipios in Spain; I Macedonian War—Philip and the Peace of Phoenice; the Roman offensive in Africa; Hannibal and Scipio Africanus compared; the "final" settlement and the war’s consequences.
  • Readings: Liv. 30.28–37 (Mellor2, 277–288). W-H-Y, 111–114.
  • Other sources: Polyb. 4.1–15.19; Liv. 23–30; Plut. Vit. Fab., Marcell.; App. Iber. 3–7, Han. 8.50–9.61, Lib. 2.7–9.66.
  • See also: Cary and Scullard, ch. 13, 130–37; Scullard HRW 753–146, 211–239.
  •  

  • 12. Roman Expansion and Imperialism I.
  • Topics: The question of imperialism revisited—"defensive" imperialism?; II Macedonian War—Philip, Flamininus, and Cynoscephelae; "Freedom for the Greeks"; Cato the Censor and traditional values; I Syrian War with Antiochus III the Great—Thermopylae, Magnesia, and Apamaea; the figure and death of Hannibal; I Iberian War—Cato and the elder Gracchus.
  • Readings: Liv. 31.1–9; 33.6–10, 30–33, 38–40; 34.1–8; 36.15–19; 38.37–38; 39.51 (Mellor2, 288–320). W-H-Y, 115–121; "Roman Provincial Expansion During the Middle Republic" (packet, 30).
  • Other sources: Polyb. 15.20–18.46; Liv. 31–41; Plut. Vit. Flam., Cat. Mai.; App. Maced. 4–9.4, Syr. 1.1–4.21, Iber. 8.39–16.98.
  • See also: Cary and Scullard, ch. 14, 138–143; ch. 15, 150–157, ch. 16, 161–165; Scullard HRW 753–146, 243–273.
    • 13. Roman Expansion and Imperialism II.
      • Topics: The III Macedonian War—Perseus, Paullus, and Pydna; Antiochus IV Epiphanes and Popillius Laenas; Galba and the II Iberian War; Scipio Aemilianus and the III Punic War; Andriscus and the IV Macedonian War; Rhodes; III Iberian or Numantine War; Mummius and Corinth; the legacy of Pergamum; Roman Provincial Administration.
      • Readings: W-H-Y, 121–130; "Roman Provincial Expansion During the Middle Republic" (packet, 30–31).
        • Other sources: Polyb. 4–15; Liv. 42–45, Per. 46–59; Plut. Vit. Aem.; App. Maced. 11–19, Illyr. 2.9–10, Lib. 10.67–20.135.
        • See also: Cary and Scullard, ch. 14, 143–149; ch. 15, 157–160; ch. 16, 165–168; ch. 17; Scullard HRW 753–146, 274–337; Marsh HRW 146–30, 1–31.

        EXAMINATION 1

        Th04–F05Oct; late Sa06Oct

    Handout: Roman Provincial Expansion during the Middle Republic

    Unit 1 Review (updated 9/29/03)

    Unit 2: The Roman Revolution

    133 - 27 B.C.  THE LATE REPUBLIC
    First Phase, from the Gracchi to Sulla

    • 14. Tiberius Gracchus.
      • Topics: The Roman Revolution; the Gracchi—reformers or opportunists? Family political alliances in the late second century B.C.; optimates versus populares; the Gracchan land commission and the Pergamum bequest—the senatorial reaction.

      • Readings: App. B Civ. 1.1–17 (Mellor2, 65–74); Flor. 1.47.1–13, Plut. Vit. Ti. Gracch. 8.7–9, 14.1–2, and App. B Civ. 1 intro, 2/Cic. Sest. 44.96–46.100; 48 (LR I nos. 96–97, 101). Scarre, 17–18; W-H-Y, 139–142, 153–159; Table 2: Gracchan Family Alliances (packet, 40).

        • Other sources: Liv. Per. 59; Plut. Vit. Ti. Gracch.; App. B Civ. 1.1–17.

        • See also: Cary and Scullard, ch. 20, 203–206; Marsh HRW 146–30, 32–49; Scullard FGN, 1–29.

     

    • 15. Gaius Gracchus.
      • Topics: The land commission and Scipio Aemilianus; Gaius’ social and political legislation; Fulvius Flaccus and the question of Italian enfranchisement; M. Livius Drusus—fighting fire with fire; L. Oppimius and the senatus consultum ultimum; the importance of the Gracchi; Narbonese Gaul.
      • Readings: App. B Civ. 1.17–26 (Mellor2, 74–79); Plut. Vit. C. Gracch. 3–9 abridged (LR I no. 98). W-H-Y, 159–167.
        • Other sources: Liv. Per. 59–60; Plut. Vit. C. Gracch.; App. B Civ. 1.17–27.
    • See also: Cary and Scullard, ch. 20, 206–211; Marsh HRW 146–30, 51–67; Scullard FGN, 29–41.

     

    • 16. Marius—novus homo, homo militaris.
    • Topics: The domination of the Metelli; the Numidian War against Jugurtha; Marius and the new Roman army; the invasions of the Teutones and Cimbri; Marius’ multiple consulships; the victory of Aquae Sextiae; the Sicilian Slave War; Saturninus; M. Livius Drusus and the Social War.
    • Readings: Vell. Pat. 2.15.1–17.1 abridged; App. B Civ. 1.6.49 (LR I no. 103). Scarre, 28–29; W-H-Y, 167–174.
      • Other sources: Liv. Per. 61–76; Plut. Vit. Mar.; Sall. Iug.; App. B Civ. 1.28–54.
      • See also: Cary and Scullard, chs. 21–22; Marsh HRW 146–30, 68–99; Scullard FGN, 42–68; E.S. Gruen, Roman Politics and the Political Courts, 149–78 B.C. (1968), ch. 4.
    • 17. The Dictatorship of Sulla.
    • Topics: The First Mithridatic War; the tribunate of Sulpicius Rufus and the coup of Marius and Cinna; Sulla’s return and his march on Rome; the Sulla, dictator legibus scribundis et rei publicae constituendae; the Proscriptions of 82 B.C.; the reforms of Sulla, his abdication, and death.
    • Readings: App. B Civ. 1.11.95–12.103 abridged (LR I no. 104). W-H-Y, 175–182.
    • Other sources: Liv. Per. 77–91; Plut. Vit. Sull.; Sall. Iug.; App. B Civ. 1.55–106, Mith..
    • See also: Cary and Scullard, ch. 23; Marsh HRW 146–30, 99–138; Scullard FGN, 68–84; E.S. Gruen, Roman Politics and the Political Courts, 149–78 B.C. (1968), LGRR, 411–416.
    •  

    • 18. The Ascent of Pompey.
    • Topics: Challenges to the post-Sullan "Restoration" Government—Lepidus and Sertorius; Lucullus and the Third Mithridatic War; restoration of the tribunate; the Slave Revolt of Spartacus; the consulship of Pompey and Crassus; the lex Gabinia and the War Against the Pirates; the lex Manilia and the end of Mithridates; Pompey’s settlement of the East.
    • Readings: W-H-Y, 183–193.
    • Sources: Sall. Hist. frgs.; Liv. Per. 91–102; Plut. Vit. Pomp. Sert., Crass., Luc.; Dio 36–37.23.; App. B Civ. 107–2.1, Mith.
    • See also: Cary and Scullard, ch. 24, 239–244; Marsh HRW 146–30, 139–157; Scullard FGN, 85–104; E.S. Gruen LGRR , 6–74; Syme, ch. 3.
    • 19. Cicero and Catiline.
    • Topics: The political career of M. Tullius Cicero; Crassus and Julius Caesar; the conspiracy of Catiline; Cicero’s greatest hour; the characters of Caesar and Cato; the return of Pompey.
    • Readings: Sall. Cat. 1–61 (Mellor2, 81–115); Cic. Cat. I (handout). W-H-Y, 189, 193–198; Cary and Scullard, 244–247 (handout).
    • Other sources: Liv. Per. 102–103; Plut. Vit. Cat. Min.; App. B Civ. 2.2–7; Dio 37.24–42.
    • See also: Cary and Scullard, ch. 24, 244–248; Marsh HRW 146–30, 158–176; Scullard FGN, 105–110; E.S. Gruen, LGRR, 75–82, 260–287, and esp. 416–433.
      • 20. The Rise of Julius Caesar.
        • Topics: The "First Triumvirate" and Caesar’s first consulship; the Clodius affair; the conquest of Gaul; the Lucca Conference and the renewal of the Triumvirate; the death of Crass us and the growing split with Pompey; urban violence—Milo and the death of Clodius.
        • Readings: Caes. B Gall. 1.1–54 (Mellor2, 135–161). Scarre, 30–31; W-H-Y, 199–207.
          • Other sources: Liv. Per. 103–108; Plut. Vit. Caes.; Suet. Iul.; App. B Civ. 2.8–24; Dio 37.43–40.55.
          • See also: Cary and Scullard, ch. 24, 248–49; ch. 25, 255–257; ch. 26, 258–267; Marsh HRW 146–30, 177–222; Scullard FGN, 110–134; E.S. Gruen, LGRR, 433–460.

           

      • 21. Caesar’s Civil Wars and Dictatorship.
        • Topics: The defection of Pompey and the conservative offensive against Caesar; crossing the Rubicon; civil war in Italy, Africa, and Spain—Pharsalus, Alexandria, Thapsus, and Munda; the dictatorships of Caesar—reforms, policy, and autocracy; his assassination; Caesar’s career evaluated; his funeral and legacy.
        • Readings: Suet. Iul. 37–38, 40–44, 83–85 and Plut. Vit. Caes. 57, 63–67 abridged (LR I nos. 110–112).  Scarre, 32–33; W-H-Y, 207–216.
        • Other sources: Caes. B Civ., B Afr.; Cic. Fam. varia; Liv. Per. 109–116; Plut. Vit. Caes.; Suet. Iul.; App. B Civ. 2.25–154 (n.b. the comparison with Alexander in 2.149–154); Dio 40–44.
        • See also: Cary and Scullard, ch. 26, 267–269; ch. 27, 270–281; Marsh HRW 146–30, 222–260; Scullard FGN, 134–153; E.S. Gruen, LGRR, 461–497; Syme, chs. 4–6.

       

    • 22. The Roman Revolution: A Midpoint Analysis.
    • Quiz #2
    • Review 2a
    • Topics: Politicians—oligarchs, military men, and demagogues; the breakdown of the old order; Caesarian Crisis and Conflict; Antony’s interim administration; the historiography and methodology of Sir Ronald Syme.
    • Readings: Suet. Iul. 83–85 (packet, LR I no. 112); Syme, ch. 1. W-H-Y, 217–218.
    • Other sources: Caes. B Civ., B Afr.; Liv. Per. 116; Plut. Vit. Caes.; Suet. Iul.; App. B Civ. 2.118–154 (n.b. the comparison with Alexander in 2.149–154); Dio 44.
    • See also: Cary and Scullard, ch. 27; ch. 27, 281–282; Marsh HRW 146–30, 261–266; E.S. Gruen, LGRR, 498–507; Syme, chs. 1–2.
    •  

    • 23. Caesar’s Heirs.
    • Topics: Octavian, the new Caesar; Cicero and the Philippics; the War of Mutina; Octavian’s seizure of Rome and brief consulship. The Conference of Bononia—reconciliation of the Caesarians; the lex Titia and the formation of the Second Triumvirate; the avenging of Caesar; the Battle of Philippi.
    • Readings: Cic. Phil. 5 17.46; 19.53 (LR I no. 114) W-H-Y, 218–222
    • Sources: Liv. Per. 117–119; Aug. RG 1; Plut. Vit. Ant.; Suet. Aug.; App. B Civ. 3; Dio 45–46.49.
    • See also: Cary and Scullard, ch. 28, 283–287; Marsh HRW 146–30, 266–277; Scullard FGN, 154–158; Syme, chs. 7–10, 12.
    •  

    • 24. Renewed Civil Wars
    • Source Analysis #2 due
    • Topics: Perusia, Brundisium, and the coalition in tension; Octavian’s further rise—wars against Sextus Pompey and in Illyria; a new image—regaining ground in Rome and Italy; Scribonia and Livia Drusilla. Antony in the East; Cleopatra and the humiliation of Octavia; the Oath of Tota Italia; the Battle of Actium and the fall of Egypt; the dilemma of victory.
    • Readings: App. B Civ. 4.1.2–3 and 4.2.5–4.20 abridged (LR I no. 115).W-H-Y, 222–250; Table 3: Octavia and Octavian (packet, 40).
    • Other sources: Liv. Per. 119–133; Aug. RG; Plut. Vit. Ant.; Suet. Aug.; Dio 46.50–49.38, 50–51.
    • See also: Cary and Scullard, ch. 28, 287–298; Marsh HRW 146–30, 278–311; Scullard FGN, 158–171 and 208–210; Syme, chs. 13–21.
    •  

      27 B.C. - A.D. 14    THE AUGUSTAN AGE

    • 25a. The Augustan Principate.
    • 25b. The Augustan Administration
    • Topics: Octavian after Actium; the constitutional settlement of 27 B.C.—a new name, new powers; the settlement of 23 B.C.; imperium proconsulare maius and tribunician power; the adjustment of 19 B.C.; the imperial tours; Father of his country.
    • Readings: Tac. Ann. 1.2, 3.7–4.2; Dio 53.17–18.3, 21.3–7; 53.16; Suet. Aug. 58 (LR I no. 194).  Scarre, 38–39, 46–47; W-H-Y, 251–258.
    • Other sources: Liv. Per. 134–142; Aug. RG; Vell. Pat. 2.89–128; Suet. Aug.; Dio 52–56.
    • See also: Cary and Scullard, ch. 30, 315–321; ch. 31, 331–343; Salmon HRW 30–138, 1–19; Scullard FGN, 210–224 and 243–265; Syme, chs. 23–24.
    •  

    • 26. The New Roman Order under Augustus.
    • 26b. The Augustan Succession
    • Topics: Roman society, religion, and culture under the new regime; Augustan Literature (Vergil and Horace; Livy); Augustus’ building program; a new Golden Age; the senatorial class and the domus Augusta—the growing role of the imperial family.
    • Readings: Aug. RG (Mellor2, 322–330); Tac. Ann. 1.1–10 (Mellor2, 427, 451–457); Tac. Ann. 1.2, 3.7–4.2; Dio 53.17–18.3, 21.3–7; 53.16; Suet. Aug. 58 (LR I no. 194). Scarre, 39–43, 48–49; W-H-Y, 255–283, 289–295, 297–298; Table 4: The Julio-Claudians and Table 5: The Adoptive Family of Augustus (packet, 41–42).
    • Other sources: Aug. RG; Suet. Aug.; Vell. Pat. 2.89–128; Dio 52–56.
    • See also: Cary and Scullard, ch. 29; ch. 30, 321–330; ch. 31, 343—350; Salmon HRW 30–138, 19–122; Scullard FGN, 224–242 and 265–267; Syme, chs. 25–27, 29–30.
    • Unit 2 Review

       

      EXAMINATION 2

      Tu06–W07Nov; late Th08Nov

       

      Unit 3: Imperial Rome

      A.D. 14 - 235   THE EMPIRE

    • 27. Julio-Claudians I: Tiberius.
    • Topics: Augustus’ death and legacy. The succession of Tiberius: a constitutional change; Germanicus and the mutiny of the German legions; Tiberius’ character and administration; maiestas trials; Piso and Germanicus; Vipsania Agrippina; the regency of Seianus.
    • Readings: Tac. Ann. 1.11–15, 33–53; 2.69–73; 3.1–18; 4.1–12, 4.32–35, 6.50–51 (Mellor2, 457–469, 471–489; online handout or Mellor1, 453–54). Scarre, 38–40; W-H-Y, 300–309.
    • Other sources: Vell. Pat. 2.123–31; Tac. Ann. 1–6; Suet. Tib.; Dio 57–58.
    • See also: Cary and Scullard, ch. 32, 351–354; chs. 32 and 33 passim; Salmon HRW 30–138, 123–146; Scullard FGN, 268–283.
    •  

    • 28. Julio-Claudians II: Gaius and Claudius.
    • Topics: The accession of Gaius: a monarchic succession; a young emperor; madness and tyranny; Gaius’ assassination; Claudius and the praetorian: a palace coup; Claudius’ administration; the conquest of Britain; the Messalina affair; Iulia Agrippina and "the food of the gods."
    • Readings: Suet. Calig. (online handout or Mellor1, 365–391); Tac. Ann. 11.23–38, 12.65–69 (Mellor2, 490-499). W-H-Y, 309–318; Scarre, 50–51, Wives and Children of Claudius handout
    • Other sources: for Gaius: Joseph. AJ 18.205–19.211; Philo, In Flaccus, Legatio ad Gaium; Suet. Calig.; Dio 59. For Claudius: Sen. Apocol.; Joseph. BJ 2.204, AJ 29.212; Tac. Ann. 11–12; Suet. Claud.; Dio 60.
    • See also: Cary and Scullard, ch. 32, 354–357; chs. 32 and 33 passim; Salmon HRW 30–138, 147–174; Scullard FGN, 283–304.
    •  

    • 29. Julio-Claudians III: Nero and the Fall of a Dynasty;
    • Topics: The accession of Nero; five good years; the murder of Iulia Agrippina; Nero the artist; the Great Fire of A.D. 64; deaths of Seneca and Petronius; the Jewish Revolt; Revolt of Vindex; "I perish, such an artist." Galba: "emperors can be made elsewhere than at Rome." Otho; the First Battle of Cremona; Vitellius; Mucianus’ march West; Antonius Primus and the Danube legions; Vespasian.
    • Readings: Tac. Ann. 13.1–5, 14.1–11, 15.37–44, 15.60–64; 16.18–19 (Mellor2, 499–507, 510–517); Tac. Hist. 1.1–16, 3.66–72 (Mellor2, 517–530); Tac. Hist. 2.79–81 abridged and varia (packet, 3–5 = LR II nos. 2–3).  Scarre, 52–53, 58–59; W-H-Y, 318–327.
    • Other sources: for Nero: Tac. Ann. 12–16; Suet. Ner.; Dio 61–63. For the years a.d. 68–69: Tac. Hist.; Suet. Galb., Otho, Vit. Vesp.; Dio 63–64.
    • See also: Cary and Scullard, ch. 32, 357–360; chs. 32 and 33 passim; ch. 35; Salmon HRW 30–138, 175–210; Scullard FGN, 304–321.
    •  

    • 30. Flavians I: Vespasian and Titus.
    • (Year of the Four)
    • Topics: Vespasian and the restoration of order and solvency; Titus and the end of the Jewish War; revolts along the Rhine; the Stoic opposition; Titus, "the darling of mankind." And you thought Monica was bad—Titus and the Jewish princess; the destruction of Pompeii; death of Titus.
    • Readings: CIL 6.930 (packet, 5–7 = LR II no. 4). W-H-Y, 327–332; Scarre, 56.
    • Other sources: for Vespasian and Titus: Suet. Vesp., Tit.; Dio 65–66; see also Pliny the elder, Quintillian, Frontinus, etc.
    • See also: Cary and Scullard, ch. 36; Salmon HRW 30–138, 211–224.
    •  

    • 31. Flavians II: Domitian and the Dynasty.
    • (Flavians Combined)
    • Topics: Flavian dynastic policy, frontiers, building programs, and culture; the character and administration of Domitian; dominus et deus; Agricola and northern Britain: Kleinreich versus Großreich; the problem of the senatorial tradition of historiography;
    • Readings: Tac. Agr. (Mellor2, 427–450). W-H-Y, 332–334 Table 6: The Flavii (packet, 43).
    • Other sources: Suet. Dom..; Dio 67; see also Pliny the elder, Quintillian, Frontinus, Juvenal, Martial, and Statius.
    • See also: Cary and Scullard, ch. 36; Salmon HRW 30–138, 225–252.
    •  

    • 32. The High Empire of the Good, or "Adoptive," Emperors.
    • Topics: The "election" of Nerva; his adoption of Trajan; the military exploits of Trajan; the peripatetic reign of Hadrian; the "routine administration" of Antoninus Pius; society and culture in the high empire; "the period in the history of the world during which the condition of the human race was most happy and prosperous . . ." Marcus Aurelius, the Stoic emperor; wars on the Danube and in the East.
    • Readings: SHA, Hadr. (Mellor2, 575–593). W-H-Y, 334–352; Scarre, 60–68, 72–73, 86–87; Tables 7 and 8: Antonii (packet, 44–45).
    • Other sources: Plin. Ep., Pan.; Fronto, Ep.; Dio 67–72; SHA, Hadr., Ael., Ant. Pius, Verus, Marc.;
    • See also: Cary and Scullard, chs. 37–38; Salmon HRW 30–138, 268–318; Parker, HRW 138–337, 3–28.
    •  

    • 33. Antonine Culture; Commodus and the End of an Era.
    • Review 3
    • Quiz #3
    • Topics: Society and culture in the high empire; "the period in the history of the world during which the condition of the human race was most happy and prosperous . . ." Commodus, "born to rule?" The Roman Hercules. Anti-Commodus conspiracies. Pertinax; Didius Iulianus and the sale of empire; The civil wars of A.D. 193–197: Albinus, Septimius Severus, and Pescennius Niger.
    • Readings: W-H-Y, 353–356, 366–383; Scarre, 68–71, 88–89, 96–97; E. Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 1.103–104 (handout)
    • Sources: Hdn. 1–2; Dio 73–75; SHA, Comm., Pert., Did. Iul., Sev., Pesc. Nig., Clod.
    • See also: Cary and Scullard, ch. 39; ch. 40, 489–492; Parker, HRW 138–337, 29–69.
    •  

    • 34. Severans.
    • Topics: The military monarchy of Septimius Severus; wars in Britain and Parthia; Caracalla and Geta; the administration of Caracalla; Macrinus; the "Syrian" Severan—Elagabalus, Iulia Maesa, and Iulia Soaemias; Iulia Mamaea, Severus Alexander, and the return to "Roman" values; the end of a dynasty.
    • Readings: W-H-Y, 383–392; Scarre, 89–93, 98–101; Table 9: The Severans (packet, 46).
    • Sources: Hdn. 2–6; Dio 68–80; SHA, Sev., M. Ant. (Caracalla), Geta, Marinus, Diadem., Heliogab., Alex. Sev.
    • See also: Cary and Scullard, ch. 40, 492–503; Parker, HRW 138–337, 69–138.
    • 35. Rome and Christianity.
    • Topics: Characteristics and growth of early Christianity; the context of Eastern and mystery religions; developments in post-Apostolic Christianity; official Roman policy towards Christians; official, and unofficial, persecutions.
    • Readings: Min. Fel. Oct. 6, 23.1–4 (packet, 7–8 = LR II no. 165); Plin. Ep. 10.96–97 (packet, 9–10 = LR II no. 167); Tert. Apol. 10.1, 28.2–3, 35.1, 40.1–2, Justin Qpol. 1.61, 65–67, Tatianus, Ad Gr. 22–23 (packet, 11–13 = LR II no. 169); Euseb. Hist. eccl. 5.1 abridged (packet, 13 = LR II no. 170). W-H-Y, 362–366; Scarre, 94–95, 102–103, 124–125.
    • See also: Cary and Scullard, ch. 39 (pp. 482–488) and ch. 43 (pp. 545–546); Parker, HRW 138–337, 129–138.
    • A.D. 284 - 476   THE LATE EMPIRE

    • 36. Third Century Chaos; Diocletian and the New Empire.
    • Source Analysis #3 due
    • Topics: The Crisis of Empire in the Third Century A.D.; the three Gordians and the senatorial emperors Pupienus and Albinus; Valerian against Germans and Persians; the "Thirty Tyrants"; Postumus’ Gallic Empire and Zenobia’s Palmyra; Aurelian’s restoration of the empire and solar worship; Diocletian’s administrative and economic reforms; the Tetrarchy.
    • Readings: W-H-Y, 393–413, 420–430; Scarre, 93–94, 108–116, 122–123; "Roman Emperors, from Augustus to Constantine (handout = Cary and Scullard, 571; examine names from Maximinus to Diocletian, noting especially the Gordians, Albinus and Pupienus, Decius, Valerian, Aurelian, and Diocletian).
    • Sources: Hdn. 7–8; SHA, various minor lives, including the Tyranni Triginta, up to Carinus and Numerianus; Aur. Vict. Caes. 25–39; Epit. de Caes. 25–39; Eutr. 9; Pan. Lat. 8–11; Zos. 1; Zonaras 12.
    • See also: Cary and Scullard, ch. 41; ch. 42; Parker, HRW 138–337, 141–239, 262–265.
    • 37. Constantine and His Sons.
    • Source Analysis #3 due
    • Topics: From Tetrarchy to one man rule; the Battles of the Milvian Bridge and Adrianople; Constantine’s religious policies; the Edict of Milan; Constantinople; the Council of Nicaea; Constantine, II, Constantius, and Constans.
    • Readings: Lactant. De mort. pers. 34 and Euseb. Hist. eccl. 8.27.6–10/ Lactant. De mort. pers. 48 and Euseb. Hist. eccl. 10.5.2–14 (packet, 16–18 = LR II no. 173); Euseb. Vit. Const. 3.6–10 abridged (packet, 18 = LR II no. 175).  W-H-Y, 430–444; Scarre, 116–118, 126–127; "Diocletian to Constantine" (packet, 32–33).
    • Sources: Hdn. 7–8; Dio 68–80; Euseb. Hist. eccl., Vit. Const.; Eutr. 9–10; Pan. Lat. 4–7, 12; Zos. 2; Zonaras 12.
    • See also: Cary and Scullard, ch. 42; Parker, HRW 138–337, 240–261, 265–269, 291–309.
    •  

    • 38. The Last Gasps of Pagan Antiquity.
    • Topics: Julian’s military career; philosophic and religious interests; rejection of Christianity; the continuing Persian threat; Germanic pressures, recruitment, and infiltration; Symmachus and the pagan nobility; Theodosius and the suppression of paganism. Epilogue: the end of Rome?
    • Readings: Amm. Marc. 25.1–4 (Mellor2, 595–606); Ambrose, Ep. 7 A.D. 384, abridged; Symmachus, Relat. 3 abridged (packet, 19–20 = LR II no. 186); Zos. 4.59; Theodosian Code passim (packet, 20–22 = LR II no. 187). W-H-Y, 444–448, 466–471; Scarre, 119–121, 130–135.
    • Sources: Amm. Marc.; Zos.; Mamertinus’s panegyric on Julian (in The Emperor Julian. Panegyric and Polemic, Translated Texts for Historians, 2nd ed. [Liverpool, 1989]); various documents in From Constantine to Julian: Pagan and Byzantine Views, S.N.C. Lieu and Dominic Montserrat, eds. (New York, 1996).
    • See also: Averil Cameron, The Later Roman Empire (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993); Diane Bowder, The Age of Constantine and Julian (London, 1978); R. Browning, The Emperor Julian (berkeley, 1976); G.W. Bowersock, Julian the Apostate (Cambridge, MA, 1978); G.W. Bowersock, Peter Brown, and Oleg Grabar, Late Antiquity (Cambridge, MA, 1999).
    • Roman Emperors, Augustus to Theodosius

      Unit 3 Review

      F21Dec 7:00–10:00 a.m. FINAL EXAMINATION (in-class

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